Almost lover übersetzung

almost lover übersetzung

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And in the second place, may he bestow upon thee that earthly wealth which is perceptible by the outward senses, fat and fertile, having drained off its opposite, namely poverty, from the soul and from all its parts.

But the extreme portions, those namely at the head and at the feet, we will examine. And the flowerets and the bells are symbols of distinctive qualities perceptible by the outward senses; of which the faculties of hearing and of seeing are the judges.

Now the necessaries of the soul are those good things which are perceptible only by the intellect, which ought, and indeed are bound by the law of nature, to be attached to it; and the clothing means those things which relate to the exterior and visible ornament of human life; and the place of abode is continued diligence and care respecting each of the species before mentioned, in order that the objects of the outward senses may appear as the invisible objects of the intellect do also.

But let us now examine what God, for the sake of the wise man, bestows on the rest of mankind also. He says, "I will bless those who bless thee, and curse those who curse Thee.

And this, too, is not the only reason why it is said, but it is said also on account of the harmonious consequence which exists in things; for he who praises a good man is himself worthy of encomium, and he who blames him is, on the other hand, deserving of blame.

But it is not so much the power of those who utter or who write praise or blame that is trusted to, as the real character of what is due; so that those persons would not really appear to praise or to blame at all who, in either case, adopt or introduce any falsehood of their own.

Would he not pronounce that those who speak thus are, in reality, enemies rather than friends, and do in reality blame them rather than praise them, even if they put together whole dramas full of panegyric and sing them in their honour?

But he who looks into all that is laid up in the recesses of the heart, and who alone has the power to see those things which are invisible to created beings, from these secret things has passed a condemnatory decree, being in his own person at once the most indubitable of witnesses and the most incorruptible of judges, since even the contrary thing is praised, namely, for a man who appears to calumniate and to accuse with his mouth, in his heart to be blessing, and praising, and speaking words of good omen.

And of these men no one is an enemy to his pupil, but they are all of them friendly to all of them; but it is the office of friends who have a genuine and unalloyed good will to others to speak freely, without any unfriendly purpose.

But that which comes next in order is the most important thing; that when they are silent, still no portion of the rational nature is left without a participation in the benefits; for God says that, "In thee shall all the nations of the world be blessed.

And God, opening the treasures of heaven, pours forth and showers down upon him all kinds of good things together; so that all the channels on earth are filled with them to overflowing.

Thus a good, which is but rare, is, by the kindness of God, made abundant and showered upon men, making everything else to resemble itself.

Since Sarah, that is to say, prudence, brings forth a male child, flourishing, not according to the periodical seasons of the year, but according to those seasons and felicitous occasions which have no connection with time; for it is said, "I will surely return and visit thee according to the time of life; and Sarah, thy wife, shall have a Son.

In the next passage it is said, that "Abraham went as the Lord commanded Him. And this takes place when the mind, entering into the path of virtue, treads in the steps of right reason, and follows God, remembering his commandments, and at all times and in all places confirming them both by word and deed;" for "he went as the Lord commanded him.

So that, as I said before, the words of God are the actions of the wise man. Surely it is piety and faith; for these virtues adapt and invite the mind to incorruptible nature.

For Abraham also, when he believed, is said to have "come near to God. What, then, is the object of having right wisdom?

To be able to condemn one's own folly and that of every created being. For to be aware that one knows nothing is the end of all knowledge, since there is only one wise being, who is also the only God.

Tell us now with respect to one, and that the smallest, perhaps, of the senses, what sight is, and how it is that you see; tell us what hearing is, and how it is that you hear; tell us what taste is, what touch is, what smell is, and how it is that you exercise the energies of each of these faculties; and what the sources of them are from which they originate.

But till you are able to tell what you yourselves are, do not expect ever to be looked upon as truth-telling judges or witnesses with respect to others.

For, says God, "My gifts, and my offerings, and my first fruits, you have taken care to bring to Me. But the other kind is willing to endure honourable toil, vigorously persevering in all good things, and not choosing to bear anything whatever that is bad, not even though it be ever so trifling, but rejecting it as though it were the heaviest of burdens.

Since, on the one hand, excessive pride, being full of much insolence is an evil, and to take up with a humble and self-abasing demeanour is to expose one's self to be trampled upon; but the mean, which is compounded of both, in a gentle manner is advantageous.

Now, the name Lot, being interpreted, means "declination;" and the mind declines or inclines, at one time rejecting what is good, and at another time what is evil.

And both these declinations are often seen in one and the same thing. For there are some hesitating and wavering people who incline to both sides in turn, like a ship which is tossed about by different winds, or like the different sides of a scale, being unable to rest firmly on one thing; people whom one cannot praise even when they turn to the better side, for they are influenced by impulse, and not by deliberate meaning.

But it was very well that when he began to accompany him he should unlearn ignorance, and should never again return to it.

But still he goes with him, not in the hope of deriving improvement from an imitation of a better man, but with a view of persecuting him also with a counter attraction and allurements in an opposite direction, and of leading him where there was a chance of his falling.

But the separate habitation he will arrange hereafter, but not yet. For at present, his speculations, as would be likely to be the case with a man who has but lately begun to apply himself to divine contemplation, have a want of solidity and steadiness in them.

But when they have become more compact, and are established on a firmer footing, then he will be able to separate from himself the alluring and flattering disposition as an irreconcileable enemy, and one difficult to subdue: This, too, when we leave Egypt, that is to say, the whole of the district connected with the body, being anxious to unlearn our subjection to the passions, in accordance with the language and precepts of the prophet Moses, follows us close, checking and impeding our zeal in the departure, and out of envy causing delay to the rapidity of setting forth; for it is said, "And a great mixed multitude went up with them, and sheep, and oxen, and very much Cattle.

And it is with particular beauty and propriety that he calls the soul of the wicked man multitude: For the mind is conscious that it is possessed of but slight power, and when it is not able to obtain what it desires, it weeps and groans; and yet it ought to rejoice when it fails to be able to indulge its passions, or to become infected with diseases, and it ought to think their want and absence a very great piece of good fortune.

And this excess of joy arises whenever on a sudden an abundance of all kinds of good coming together are showered down to overflowing, without having been previously expected; in reference to which kind of joy it is that the poet appears to me to have used the expression--Smiling amid her Tears.

And Annan is the symbol of a man fond of contemplation; for the name, being interpreted, means "the eyes," from the fact that the eyes of the soul also are opened by cheerfulness; and of both of these persons a life of contemplation is the inheritance, which is entitled Mamre, which name is derived from seeing; and to the contemplative man, the faculty of seeing is most appropriate and most peculiarly belonging.

And the words of scripture show this, in which it is distinctly stated that "they both of them went together, and came to the plain which God had mentioned to them;" a most excellent equality of virtues, better than any rivalry, an equality of labour with a natural good condition of body, and an equality of art with self-instructed nature, so that both of them are able to carry off equal prizes of virtue; as if the arts of painting and statuary were not only able, as they are at present, to make representations devoid of motion or animation, but were able also to invest the objects which they paint or form with motion and life; for in that case the arts which were previously imitative of the works of nature would appear now to have become the natures themselves.

And Nadab is interpreted "voluntary," that is to say, the man who honours the Deity without compulsion; and the interpretation of the name Abihu is, "my father.

But the soul is afraid by itself to rise up to the contemplation of the living God, if it does not know the road, from being lifted up by a union of ignorance and audacity; and the falls which are caused by such a union of ignorance and great rashness are very serious; on which account Moses prays that he may have God himself as his guide to the road which leads to him.

For he says, "If thou wilt not thyself go with me, then do not thou lead me Hence. For to great numbers of people the things which are called good not being so in reality have been the causes of irremediable evils, but the man who follows God does of necessity have for his fellow travellers all those reasons which are the attendants of God, which we are accustomed to call angels.

At all events, it is said that "Abraham went with them conducting them on their Way. Attend thou to him, and listen to him; do not disobey him; for he will not pardon your transgressions, for my name is in Him.

But first of all we will examine what Charran is, and what is meant by the departure from this country to go and live in another.

But after his father died he then departed from this land of Chaldaea, so that he has now migrated from two different places.

The Chaldeans appear beyond all other men to have devoted themselves to the study of astronomy and of genealogies; adapting things on earth to things sublime, and also adapting the things of heaven to those on earth, and like people who, availing themselves of the principles of music, exhibit a most perfect symphony as existing in the universe by the common union and sympathy of the parts for one another, which though separated as to place, are not disunited in regard of kindred.

Then, having erected fate and necessity into gods, they filled human life with excessive impiety, teaching men that with the exception of those things which are apparent there is no other cause whatever of anything, but that it is the periodical revolutions of the sun, and moon, and other stars, which distribute good and evil to all existing beings.

For the living God contains everything, and it is impiety to suppose that he is contained by any thing, but what is meant is, that his power according to which he made, and arranged, and established the universe, is both in heaven and earth.

Since the living God is indeed conceived of in opinion everywhere, but in real truth he is seen nowhere; so that divine scripture is most completely true in which it is said, "Here am I," speaking of him who cannot be shown as if he were being shown, of "him who is invisible as if he were visible, before thou Existedst.

For by contemplating the things which are to be seen in your own dwelling, that which bears the mastery therein, and that which is in subjection; that which has life, and that which is inanimate; that which is endowed with and that which is destitute of reason; that which is immortal, and that which is mortal; that which is better, and that which is worse; you will at once arrive at a correct knowledge of God and of his works.

In like manner also, the mind of the universe being invested with the supremacy, governs the world by independent law and justice, having a providential regard not only for those things which are of more importance, but also for those which appear to be somewhat obscure.

For in some sense they are all holes and caves, the eyes being the caves in which the sight dwells, the ears those of hearing, the nostrils of those smelling, the throat the cavern of taste, and the whole frame of the body, being the abode of touch.

And when you have thoroughly and perfectly considered the whole of your own habitation, and have understood what relative importance each of its parts possesses, then rouse yourselves up and seek to accomplish a migration from hence, which shall announce to you, not death, but immortality; the evident proofs of which you will see even while involved in the corporeal cares perceptible by the outward senses, sometimes while in deep slumber for then the mind, roaming abroad, and straying beyond the confines of the outward senses, and of all the other affections of the body, begins to associate with itself, looking on truth as at a mirror, and discarding all the imaginations which it has contracted from the outward senses, becomes inspired by the truest divination respecting the future, through the instrumentality of dreams , and at other times in your waking moments.

For it is impossible, while it is still in a state of motion, in a manner appreciable by the outward sense rather than by the intellect, to arrive at a proper consideration of the living God.

Accordingly, we are told, "He ran up and took him out from thence, because he who was abiding among the vessels of the soul, that is, the body and the outward senses, was not worthy to hear the doctrines and laws of the kingdom and by the kingdom, we mean wisdom, since we call the wise man a king ; but when he has risen up and changed his place, then the mist around him is dissipated, and he will be able to see clearly.

Very appropriately, therefore, does the companion of knowledge think it right to leave the region of the outward sense, by name Charran; and he leaves it when he is seventy-five years old; and this number is on the confines of the nature discernible by the outward senses, and that intelligible by the intellect, and of the older and younger, and also of perishable and imperishable nature; for the elder, the imperishable ratio, that comprehensible by the intellect, exists in the seventy; the younger ratio, discernible by the outward senses, is equal in number to the five outward senses.

For Jacob is the name of one who is wrestling and engaged in a contest and trying to trip up his antagonist, not of one who has gained the victory.

For, on the feast of tabernacles, besides all other sacrifices, it is ordered that the priest should offer up seventy heifers for a burnt offering.

Again, it is in accordance with the computation of seventy that the phials of the princes are provided, for each of them is of the weight of seventy shekels; since whatever things are associated and confederate together in the soul, and dear to one another, have a power which is truly attractive, namely, the sacred computation of seventy, which Egypt, the nature which hates virtue, and loves to indulge the passions, is introduced as lamenting; for mourning among them is computed at seventy Days.

But recollection is placed in the second rank, after memory, of which Ephraim is the namesake; and the interpretation of the name of Ephraim is, "bearing fruit;" and the most beautiful and nutritious fruit in souls is a memory which never forgets; therefore the virgins speak to one another in a becoming manner, saying, "Our father is dead.

And they were not his sons, but his daughters; since the power of memory, as being what has its existence by its own nature, is the parent of male children; but forgetfulness, arising from the slumber of reason, is the parent of female children, for it is destitute of reason; and the outward senses are the daughters of the irrational part of the soul.

The work begins where those of Socrates and Theodoret end, and goes down to the twelfth year of the reign of the emperor Maurice.

The work also contains some passages about images. He was an advocate Scholasticus. Dedicated to the emperor Theodosius the Younger, it begins with the consulship of Crispus and his father Constantine, and goes down to the reign of Theodosius the Younger.

His style is better than that of Socrates, from whom he differs in certain particulars. Read the Ecclesiastical History of Theodoret.

It is generally clear, dignified, and free from redundancies, although he sometimes employs metaphors that are too bold, almost insipid. He gives a fuller account of the proceedings of the second council 6 than other historians, who merely bestow a cursory notice upon them, as if they were unwilling to say much about it.

However, even he does not give all the details. He begins his History with the heresy of Arius and goes down to the reign of Theodosius the Younger, and the death of Theodore, 1 at the time when Sisinnius was bishop of Constantinople.

Read various letters of Athanasius, 2 some containing a kind of Apology for his flight. It is a pleasure to listen to the Apology.

Patriarch of Alexandria, the father of orthodoxy and the chief opponent of Arianism. He begins his history with Moses and carries it down to the death of the seventh Agrippa of the family of Herod 6 and the last of the kings of the Jews.

His kingdom, which was bestowed upon him by Claudius, was extended by Nero, and still more by Vespasian. He died in the third year of the reign of Trajan, when the history ends.

Justus's style is very concise, and he omits a great deal that is of the utmost importance. Suffering from the common fault of the Jews, to which race he belonged, he does not even mention the coming of Christ, the events of His life, or the miracles performed by Him.

His father was a Jew named Pistus; Justus himself, according to Josephus, was one of the most abandoned of men, a slave to vice and greed.

He was a political opponent of Josephus, against whom he is said to have concocted several plots; but Josephus, although on several occasions he had his enemy in his power, only chastised him with words and let him go free.

It is said that the history which he wrote is in great part fictitious, especially where he describes the Judaeo-Roman war and the capture of Jerusalem.

He was condemned to death by Vespasian, but his life was spared by Agrippa. He also wrote a history of the Jewish war.

Paul made his defence. The statement that he died in the third year of Trajan's reign is objected to on the ground that Josephus' Autobiography, which gives an account of Justus, was published immediately after the Antiquities in the reign of Domitian.

Read the History of Africanus, 1 who was also the author of the Cesti in fourteen books. He begins with the Mosaic cosmogony and goes down to the coming of Christ.

He also gives a cursory account of events from that time to the reign of Macrinus, 3 at which date, as he tells us, the Chronicle was finished, that is, in the rd year of the world.

The work is in five volumes. Origen answered and refuted these objections. Africanus also wrote a letter to Aristides, 5 in which he showed that in reality there was no such difference as was generally supposed between the genealogies of our Saviour in Matthew and Luke.

He was the author of a Chronicle, a history of the world from the Creation to ; Cesti embroidered girdles , a collection of notes on all kinds of subjects; a letter to Aristides on the genealogies of Jesus in Matthew and Luke; and a letter to Origen to show that the History of Susannah in the Apocrypha is a later addition from a Greek original.

The last has been preserved in full, of the three first only fragments. According to his system of chronology, called the Alexandrian era, there were years between the Creation and the birth of Christ, which he antedated by three years.

An extract in Georgius Syncellus, however, shows that the Chronicle really went down a little later.

Read the work of Philip 1 of Side, entitled a Christian History, beginning with the words "In the beginning God created the heavens and the earth.

The first book contains twenty-four volumes, like the twenty-three other books, which we have seen up to the present. Most of the matter has nothing to do with history, and the work might be called a treatise on all kinds of subjects rather than a history, a tasteless effusion.

Philip was a contemporary of Sisinnius and Proclus, patriarchs of Constantinople. He frequently attacks the former in his history, because, while both filled the same office 3 and Philip was considered the more eloquent, Sisinnius was elected to the patriarchate.

He was a presbyter in Constantinople, and a friend of John Chrysostom. Read the book entitled the Book of Christians, an interpretation of the Octateuch.

The author, 4 who flourished in the reign of Justin, dedicates the work to a certain Pamphilus, It begins with the defence of certain ecclesiastical dogmas by evidence drawn from the Scriptures.

The style is poor, and the arrangement hardly up to the ordinary standard. He relates much that is incredible from an historical point of view, so that he may fairly be regarded as a fabulist rather than a trustworthy authority.

The views on which he lays special stress are: He also mentions the books of Genesis and Exodus, as it were by way of digression; and enters into a lengthy discussion and speculations about the Tabernacle.

The prophets and apostles are cursorily treated. He says that the sun is only twice as large as two "climates"; 1 that the angels do not dwell in heaven, but above the firmament and mingle with us; that Christ at His Ascension entered the space between the sky and the firmament, and that only this is the kingdom of heaven; and similar absurdities.

He dedicates the first six books to a certain Pamphilus, of the remaining six there are twelve in all the seventh to Anastasius, in which he contends that the heavens are indissoluble; the eighth, on the song of Hezekiah 2 and the retrogression of the sun, to a certain Peter.

In this book he also states that he has written a commentary on the Song of Songs. The four remaining books have no dedication. He visited Arabia and East Africa, but it is doubtful whether he deserves the title of "Indian navigator.

Photius says he flourished under "Justin," but as he does not state which Justin, perhaps "Justinian" should be read. Later, the word was used for belts or zones of its surface, and then for the temperature of those zones.

According to Cosmas, the two "climates" were between the latitudes of Alexandria and Rhodes, and Rhodes and Constantinople about miles.

Read an essay On Government, 3 in the form of a dialogue between Menas a patrician and Thomas a referendary. The Republic of Plato is deservedly criticised.

The interlocutors hold that the constitution which they propose should be a combination of the three forms of governmentmonarchy, aristocracy, democracy.

Each of these is to contribute what is genuine and sincere to the formation of the ideal constitution.

There is no clue to the author. Read the work of Theodore of Antioch 1 entitled A Commentary on Genesis the history of the Creation , the first book of which contains seven volumes.

The style is neither brilliant nor very clear. The author avoids the use of allegory as much as possible, being only concerned with the interpretation of history.

He frequently repeats himself, and produces a disagreeable impression upon the reader. Although he lived before Nestorius, he vomits up his doctrines by anticipation.

This is that Theodore of Mopsuestia, from whom on several occasions John Philoponus as the latter himself says demanded a serious explanation of his method of interpretation in his own work on the Creation.

Read the brief refutation of the discourse of Hierocles 2 in support of Apollonius of Tyana 3 by Eusebius Pamphili.

Read the so-called Ecclesiastical History by Philostorgius 1 the Arian, the spirit of which is different from that of nearly all other ecclesiastical historians.

He extols all Arians, but abuses and insults all the orthodox, so that his work is not so much a history as a panegyric of the heretics, and nothing but a barefaced attack upon the orthodox.

His style is elegant, his diction often poetical, though not to such an extent as to be tedious or disagreeable. His figurative use of words is very expressive and makes the work both pleasant and agreeable to read; sometimes, however, these figures are overbold and far-fetched, and create an impression of being frigid and ill-timed.

The language is variously embellished even to excess, so that the reader imperceptibly finds himself involved in a disagreeable obscurity. In many instances the author introduces appropriate moral reflections of his own.

He starts from the devotion of Arius to the heresy and its first beginnings, and ends with the recall of the impious Aetius. He was recalled and welcomed by the impious Julian.

The history, in one book and six volumes, goes down to this period. The author is a liar and the narrative often fictitious.

He chiefly extols Aetius and Eunomius for their learning, as having alone cleansed the doctrines of faith overlaid by time, therein showing himself a monstrous liar.

He also praises Eusebius of Nicomedia 3 whom he calls the Great , Theophilus the Indian, 4 and several others, for their lives and wonderful works. He severely attacks Acacius, bishop of Caesarea 5 in Palestine, for his extreme severity and invincible craftiness, in which, he declares, Acacius surpassed all his fellow-heretics, however filled they were with hatred of one another, as well as those who held different religious opinions.

This was the extent of our reading. Soon afterwards six other books were found in another volume, so that the whole appears to have filled twelve books.

The initial letters of each book are so arranged that they form the name of the author. The work goes down to the time of Theodosius the Younger, when, after the death of Honorius, Theodosius handed over the throne of the West to his cousin Valentinian the Younger, the son of Constantius and Placidia.

Notwithstanding his rage against the orthodox, Philostorgius does not venture to attack Gregory the Theologian, 6 but unwillingly accepts his doctrines.

His attempt to slander Basil the Great only had the effect of increasing his reputation. He was forced to admit the vigour and beauty of his sermons from actual knowledge, although he timidly calls Basil overbold and inexperienced in controversy, because he ventured to attack the writings of Eunomius.

The history covered the period from to He supported the extreme Arianism of Eunomius. A considerable number of extracts also from Photius have been published as a separate work.

He was exiled by Constantius, but recalled by Julian the Apostate. He was born in the island of Diu India , but in early youth was taken as a hostage to Constantinople, where he became a Christian Arian.

Read the Ecclesiastical History by a certain John. The style is clear but florid. The author describes in detail the third council held at Ephesus, 4 and also another council held in the same place, the "Robber" council, 5 which he deifies together with its president Dioscorus and his companions.

He also gives a slanderous account of the council of Chalcedon. This justifies the conclusion that the author is John, presbyter of Aegae, a heretic who wrote a special attack on the council of Chalcedon.

The history, according to his statement, is in ten books. I have only read five, containing as already stated a record of events from the heresy of Nestorius to the deposition of Peter the heretic.

Photius calls him a Nestorian, but it is suggested that this is a mistake for Eutychian. Read the Ecclesiastical History of Basil the Cilician.

It was through him that Acacius was deprived of his see; for although Acacius at first was justly incensed against him, he subsequently showed no aversion to his doctrines and thereby incurred the suspicion of being a heretic.

This matter came up again during the reign of Zeno. The history begins at this time and goes down to the death of Anastasius, after he had reigned twenty-seven years and three months, Justin the Thracian being proclaimed his successor.

The author also states that two other books were written by him, the first and the third; the first beginning with the reign of Marcian and ending with that of Zeno, where the second begins, while the third continues the narrative of the second, beginning with the reign of Justin.

The author's style is rather slovenly and uneven. He also introduces a large amount of episcopal correspondence, the object of which, he says, is to prove what he writes; these vastly increase the bulk of the book and contain but little history, and that buried under a mass of verbiage.

The clearness of the narrative is destroyed by the number of parentheses. Presbyter of Antioch, afterwards bishop of Irenopolis in Cilicia see Cod.

Read the treatise of John Philoponus on the Hexaemeron. He agrees in the main with Basil the Great, but everywhere opposes Theodore of Mopsuestia, who, taking up the same subject, wrote his Interpretation of Genesis, which Philoponus in turn endeavours to refute.

He tells us that Apollonius visited the Indians, whom he calls Brahmins, from whom he learnt much of their divine wisdom. He also visited the wise men of Aethiopia, whom he calls Gymni , 3 because they pass all their life naked and never wear clothes even in the most trying weather.

But he declares that the wise men of India are far superior to those of Aethiopia, since they are older in point of time and their intellect is purer and keener, owing to their living nearer to the rays of the sun.

He does not, however, assert that Apollonius worked any wonders such as legend ascribes to him; he merely extols him as leading a philosophic and temperate life, in which he exhibits the teaching of Pythagoras, both in manners and doctrine.

Various accounts are given of his death, the circumstances of which are obscure, as he himself desired; for during his lifetime he was in the habit of saying that the wise man should keep his life a secret from others, or, if he could not, should at least keep his death a secret.

Philostratus states that Apollonius had a great contempt for riches; he gave up all he possessed to his brother and others, and could never be persuaded to accept money from those in authority, 5 although they pressed it upon him as deserving it.

He asserts that he long foresaw the famine at Ephesus and stopped it after it broke out. He once saw a certain lion, which he declared to be the soul of Amasis, king of the Egyptians, 6 which had entered the body of the animal as a punishment for the crimes Amasis had committed during his lifetime.

He also exposed an Empusa, 7 which, under the guise of a courtesan, pretended to be enamoured of Menippus. Before Domitian he defended himself and extolled Nerva Domitian's successor ; after which he vanished from the court, and joined Demetrius 9 and Damis 10 as had been arranged, not after a long time, but in a few moments, though they were several days' journey apart.

Such are the fictions of Philostratus concerning Apollonius. He denies, however, that he was a wonder-worker, if he performed some of the wonders that are commonly attributed to him, but asserts that they were the result of his philosophy and the purity of his life.

On the contrary, he was the enemy of magicians and sorcerers and certainly no devotee of magic. All that he says about the Indians is a tissue of absurd and incredible statements.

He asserts that they have certain jars full of rains and winds, with which in time of drought they are able to water the country, and again to deprive it of moisture, after the rain has fallen, since in these casks they have the means of controlling the alternate supply of wind and rain.

He tells similar stories, equally foolish and preposterous, and these eight books are so much study and labour lost. Perhaps the Cynic who lived in Lucian's time.

He is said to have met Apollonius in Athens, but considering that his philosophical views were opposed to those of Apollonius, the account of the intimacy is probably untrue.

Demetrius had to leave Rome because of the freedom with which he attacked the emperor and the authorities. He is said to have handed over the MS.

Read two pamphlets by Andronicianus 5 Against the Eunomians. In the preface he promises much that he does not perform, at any rate in the second book.

He shows himself a devoted student of philosophy in character, sentiment, and style. By religion he is a Christian.

Read twenty-seven books by Theodoret, bishop of Cyrrhus, against various heretical propositions. In the second, he supports his contentions more by arguments from Scripture.

The fifth contains a collection of the opinions of the heretics, which are compared with the opinion of those who do not admit two natures in Christ and shown to be nearly akin.

The sixth distinctly states that there is one Son, our Lord Jesus Christ. The seventh is in the form of a letter completing the first book.

The eighth is written against those who judge the truth only by the opinion of the multitude. The ninth is against those who assert that we should neither seek arguments nor quote from the Scriptures, but that we must be satisfied with our faith.

The tenth is against those who malevolently bring forward the argument that "the Word was made flesh. The twelfth is against those who assert that he who says the Word is one thing and the flesh another, assumes there are two Sons.

The thirteenth is against those who say that to regard Christ as a man is to put one's hopes in man. The fourteenth is against those who say, "He suffered without suffering.

The seventeenth is against those who say, "The Word suffered in the flesh. The nineteenth is against those who declare that he who does not believe that God was crucified is a Jew.

The twentieth is against those who assert that the angels who ate with Abraham did not entirely put on the nature of flesh.

The twenty-first is against those who depreciate each of the miracles, by denying the flesh. The twenty-second is against those who injure our race, by denying that the Saviour began with our nature.

The twenty-third is against those who bid us simply believe what is said, without considering what is seemly or what is unseemly. The twenty-fourth is against those who do away with the difference of the two natures, after the Passion and the Ascension.

The twenty-fifth is a summary of all that has already been stated in detail. The twenty-sixth deals with the subsequently manifested composition or consubstantiation; the twenty-seventh with the example from the ordinary man applied to Christ.

The subject alone in each case is sufficient to indicate which of the above confirm the orthodox faith, and which are at variance with it.

Read in the same volume three larger works than those mentioned, entitled Eranistes the Beggar or Polymorphos multiform.

In a fourth book, these statements are supported by argument. The three books were composed by him in the form of a dialogue, but the rest are in continuous prose.

The style is clear, distinct, and pure; not wanting in charm, and the works abound in suitable reflections.

The capture of Iotapata 3 at which Josephus himself was taken prisoner and Gischala, 2 and the desolation of other Jewish fortresses is described, and in the last book the destruction of Jerusalem and the fortress of Masada.

The author has a pure style, and is apt at expressing his meaning with dignity, with distinctness and charm.

In the speeches introduced he is persuasive and agreeable, even when the opportunity invites him to take opposite views; he is clever and prolific in the use of arguments on either side, and is extremely fond of aphorisms.

He is also very skilful in introducing the emotional, in rousing the passions and calming them. He relates that many signs and portents preceded the taking of Jerusalem.

A heifer that was being led to the sacrifice brought forth a lamb; a light shone in the temple and a voice was heard saying, "Let us remove hence"; the gates of the temple, which twenty men could hardly open, opened of their own accord; in the evening troops appeared clad in armour.

A man named Jesus, son of Ananias, for six years and three months incessantly repeated, like one inspired, the words "Woe, woe to Jerusalem!

He was present at the capture of the city, and while crying out "Woe, woe, to the city! Such were the signs that foretold the taking of the city; but it was internal sedition, together with the enemy, that overthrew it.

Split up into the factions of Zelotae and Sicarii, 4 they destroyed one another, and thus the body of the state was cruelly and mercilessly torn asunder by the common people.

The city suffered so grievously from famine that the inhabitants were driven to all kinds of excesses; a woman even ate the flesh of her own son.

Famine was succeeded by pestilence, a clear proof that it was the work of the divine wrath, in fulfilment of the Lord's proclamation and threat that the city should be taken and utterly destroyed.

His other extant works are: Jewish Antiquities, Autobiography, a polemical treatise Against Apion.

They did not shrink from murder, and carried small daggers sicae to stab those whom they considered the enemies of their country.

It consists of two little treatises, in which the author shows that Plato contradicts himself. He also refutes Alcinous, 2 whose views on the soul, matter, and the Resurrection are false and absurd, and introduces his own opinions on the subject.

He proves that the Jewish nation is far older than the Greek. He thinks that man is a compound of fire, earth, and water, and also of spirit, which he calls soul.

Of the spirit he speaks as follows: Taking the chief part of this, he moulded it together with the body, and opened a passage for it through every joint and limb.

The spirit, thus moulded together with the body and pervading it throughout, is formed in the likeness of the visible body, but its nature is colder, compared with the three other substances of which the body is compounded.

These views are not in harmony with the Jewish ideas of human physiology, and are below the customary standard of his other writings.

He also gives a summary account of the creation of the world. Of Christ the true God he speaks like ourselves, openly giving Him the name of God, and describing, in language to which no objection can be taken, His indescribable generation from the Father.

This might, perhaps, cause people to doubt whether the treatise is really by Josephus, although in respect of style it does not differ from the rest of his writings.

I find a marginal note to the effect that the work is not by Josephus, but by one Gaius, 3 a presbyter of Rome, also the author of The Labyrinth, 4 and of a dialogue against Proclus, the champion of the Montanists.

But there is no doubt that the work is by Gaius, the author of The Labyrinth, who at the end of this treatise has left it on record that he was the author of The Nature of the Universe.

But it is not quite clear to me, whether this is the same or a different work. This Gaius is said to have been a presbyter of the Church at Rome, during the episcopate of Victor 6 and Zephyrinus, 7 and to have been ordained bishop of the gentiles.

He wrote another special work against the heresy of Artemon, 8 and also composed a weighty treatise against Proclus, the supporter of Montanus.

In this he reckons only thirteen epistles of St. Paul, and does not include the Epistle to the Hebrews. It is a question whether it is identical with The Little Labyrinth mentioned by Theodoret.

He was a priest of Cybele, subsequently converted to Christianity and a teacher at Rome. According to his followers, he was the Paraclete or Holy Spirit promised by Christ.

Amongst other things they distinguished two classes of sins, those unto death and those not unto death; denied the validity of second marriages; did not baptize in the name of the Trinity, but in memory of Christ's death for mankind; despised the old prophets as possessed by evil spirits; and favoured a highly ascetic life.

His views were subsequently developed by Paul of Samosata flourished This work is probably identical with The Labyrinth.

Read the treatise of Cyril, bishop of Alexandria, Against the Blasphemies of Nestorius, in five books. In these he preserves his characteristic style and curious phraseology.

But he is clearer than in his letters to Hermeias 4 and his work On Adoration in the Spirit. The language is ornate and elaborate, forced into agreement with its peculiar form, which resembles prose poetry that despises metre.

Read the treatise of Nicias the monk 5 Against the Seven Chapters of Philoponus, which he mentioned in his work called the Arbitrator.

The style is simple and concise, suitable for controversial writings, and free from redundancies. Also read his attack On the impious Severus and two books Against the Heathen.

The work is meant for show, and is a studied attempt to work upon the feelings. It contains speeches to the people put into the mouth of Moses, and fictitious addresses of the people in reply.

There are also elaborate speeches of the Deity to Moses and the people, together with their replies, in the form of entreaty and excuse.

A great part of the work, which comprises a bulky volume, is devoted to these speeches. The author himself, so far as one can judge from this treatise, is orthodox.

It is suggested that he may have been the Hesychius who accused Eunomius of heresy. Read the account of the synod held at Side 1 against the sect of the Messalians, 2 Euchites, 2 or Adelphians.

Read in the same a letter of the synod to Flavian, bishop of Antioch, giving him an account of the proceedings. In consequence of this letter, Flavian summoned another synod against these same heretics, assisted by three other bishops, Bizus of Seleucia, Maruthas, bishop of the Sufareni, 4 and Samus.

There were also present priests and deacons to the number of thirty. The synod refused to accept Adelphius's profession of repentance or to admit him when he offered to renounce his heresy; for it was shown that neither his renunciation nor repentance was sincere.

The founders of this sect were Adelphius, who was neither a monk nor a priest, but one of the laity, Sabas, surnamed Apokopos castrated , who assumed the garb of a monk, another Sabas, Eustathius of Edessa, Dadoes, and Simeon, the tares of the evil one, and others who grew up together with them.

Adelphius and his followers were condemned, although they sought opportunity for repentance, which was refused them, since they were detected communicating in writing, as if they shared their views, with persons whom they had anathematized as Messalians.

Flavian wrote a letter to the Osroenians, informing them of what had been done and giving an account of the punishment and excommunication of the heretics.

The bishops who received it wrote back to Flavian, thanking him and expressing their approval. Litoius, 5 bishop of Armenia, also wrote inquiring about the Messalians, and a copy of the decree and sentence of the council was sent to him.

The great Flavian also wrote to another Armenian bishop on the same subject; in this second letter he accuses the bishop of sympathy with the Messalians.

Atticus, bishop of Constantinople, also wrote to the bishops of Pamphylia, bidding them everywhere expel the Messalians as accursed and an abomination.

He wrote in similar terms to Amphilochius, bishop of Side. Sisinnius of Constantinople and Theodotus of Antioch sent a joint letter to Verinianus, 6 Amphilochius, and the rest of the bishops in Pamphylia, addressed "To our colleagues, beloved of God, Verinianus, Amphilochius, and the rest of the bishops in Pamphylia: Sisinnius, Theodotus, and all the holy synod which by the grace of God was assembled in the mighty city of Constantinople to consecrate the most holy Sisinnius, beloved of God, and our emperor Theodosius, beloved of Christ, greet you in the Lord.

John of Antioch also wrote a letter to Nestorius about the Messalians. The holy oecumenical council, the third, at Ephesus, 7 also issued a decree, exposing the blasphemies and heresies of the Messalian book Asceticus and anathematizing it.

Archelaus, bishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, also wrote twenty-four anathematisms against these articles.

Heraclidas, bishop of Nyssa, also wrote two letters against them, in the second of which evidence is given of the antiquity of the worship of the holy images.

Some time afterwards, Gerontius, presbyter and superior of the monks at Glitis, wrote to Alypius, archbishop of Caesarea in Cappadocia, bringing various charges against Lampetius, 8 a profane impostor, who was the first of the Messalian sect who succeeded in worming his way into the dignity of the priesthood.

Alypius, on receipt of the letter, commanded Hormisdas, bishop of Comana, to investigate the charges against Lampetius.

The heads of the indictment were: He and the Messalians were accused of many other impious words and deeds; and we ourselves, while endeavouring, as far as was in our power, to lead them from the error which was lately beginning to spring up again, have seen much festering passion and vice consuming their souls.

But this Lampetius, Gerontius the presbyter being his accuser and bishop Hormisdas his judge, convicted partly on the evidence of witnesses and partly out of his own mouth, was unanimously degraded from the priesthood.

Alypius of Caesarea who had been misled and had promoted the miscreant to the dignity of presbyter joined in the vote.

This thrice sinful Lampetius composed a book called the Testament, in which some of his impious doctrines are inserted; Severus, who usurped the see of Antioch, while still only a presbyter, refuted it.

A certain Alpheus, bishop of Rhinocorura, 9 defended Lampetius as innocent in word and deed of the charges brought against him, and although, so far as one knows, he introduces no blasphemies in his published work, he was deprived of his office as a supporter of Lampetius.

Another Alpheus, who had been ordained presbyter by Timotheus of Alexandria, was removed from office for the same heresy, as we learn from a report made by Ptolemy, also bishop of Rhinocorura, to the same Timotheus.

They believed that perpetual prayer and asceticism would procure inspiration from the Holy Spirit. His followers were called Lampetians. Read an account of the proceedings of the synod held at Carthage 1 in the great church, while Faustus 2 Honorius was emperor of the West, against Pelagius 3 and Coelestius.

This synod excommunicated those who asserted that Adam was created mortal, and that he did not suffer death as a punishment for his sin; also those who declared that infants newly born had no need of baptism, because they were not liable to original sin from Adam; also those who affirmed that there was a place midway between hell and paradise, to which infants dying unbaptized were removed, there to live in a state of blessedness.

Six other similar articles, which hold the first place in the heresies of Pelagius and Coelestius, were also anathematized. The emperors Theodosius and Honorius also wrote to bishop Aurelius condemning these same heretics.

After this Constantius, the husband of Placidia and the father of Valen-tinian the Younger, sent a decree to Volusianus, praefect of the city, ordering that Coelestius should be banished.

Perhaps at the same time he met that holy woman, who had come from Jerusalem to the queen-city. In the letter of Coelestine, bishop of Rome, 9 to Nestorius the same heretics are condemned.

Coelestine also wrote to the bishops of Gaul in defence of the teaching of St. Augustine and against those who were emboldened to speak rashly by the licence allowed to the heresy.

Jerome the priest 10 also wrote to Ctesiphon 11 in refutation of those who held the idea of impassibility in other words, against Pelagius.

This Pelagius was a monk and Coelestius was his pupil. He resided in Rome, Africa, and Palestine, where he is said to have died.

The Pelagians rejected the doctrine of original sin, but believed in the Trinity and the personality of Christ. It is to him that the influence of Pelagianism was chiefly due.

Some authorities make him an Italian. The latter is here referred to. She was born at Rome, but early in life retired to Hippo in Africa, where she became acquainted with St.

Augustine, and afterwards to Jerusalem, where she embraced the monastic life and died. It states that the Nestorian and Coelestian heresies were identical without doubt, quoting as its authority a letter of Cyril of Alexandria 1a to the emperor Theodosius.

The Coelestians, speaking of the body or the members of Christ, that is, the Church, audaciously deny that it is God that is, the Holy Spirit who distributes to each man severally, as He wills, faith and all that is necessary to life, piety, and salvation; according to them, the nature of man as constitutedwhich by sin and transgression fell from blessedness and was separated from God and handed over to deathboth invites and repels the Holy Spirit in accordance with free will.

The Nestorians hold and venture to assert the same opinion concerning the head of the body, Christ. Since Christ shares our nature and God wishes all men alike to be saved, they say that every one of his own free will can amend his error and make himself worthy of God; wherefore He who was born of Mary was not Himself the Word, but, by reason of the nobility of His natural will, He had the Word accompanying, sharing the condition of sonship by nobleness alone and similarity of name.

This Pelagian or Coelestian heresy flourished not only in the East, but also spread over the West. At Carthage in Africa it was detected and refuted by Aurelius and Augustine, and publicly condemned at various synods.

Those who held these opinions were expelled from the Church as heretics, when Theophilus was bishop of Alexandria 1b and Innocent bishop of Rome, 2 by Roman, African, and other Western bishops.

At the synod held in Palestine, 3 however, at which fourteen bishops attended, Pelagius was acquitted. Some of the charges brought against him he utterly denied as foolish and anathematized, while he admitted having made certain other statements, not however in the sense attributed to them by his accusers, but rather in conformity with the doctrines of the Catholic Church.

His accusers were Neporus 4 and Lazarus, 5 two bishops of Gaul, who were not present at the inquiry, having obtained permission to absent themselves in consequence of the illness of one of them.

So Augustine states in his letters to Aurelius, bishop of Carthage. After the death of the holy Augustine certain of the clergy began to reassert these impious doctrines.

They began to speak evil of Augustine and falsely accused him of denying free will; but bishop Coelestine checked the renewal of this slander, writing to the bishops of the country in defence of that godlike man and against those who had set this heresy on foot again.

As time went on, and these heretics, after having abjured their own doctrines, were received again into the Church, the scandal was again revived by them, and had to be put down before it went further by bishop Septimus, 6 who wrote to Leo, pope at that time and a fervent opponent of these impious doctrines.

Not long afterwards, when the shameless heresy again sprang up from an evil root, certain persons at Rome openly expressed themselves in favour of it.

But Prosper, 7 truly a man of God, in his pamphlets against them, soon crushed them, while Leo still occupied the papal throne.

The heresy was also condemned at the holy synod of Ephesus. He was the author of two or three valuable Chronicles and a number of theological works.

He shamelessly attempts to prove that the council favoured the heresy of Nestorius, and declares that it acquiesced in his excommunication, because it imagined it was doing no harm to the man 4 by ratifying his doctrine, which Nestorius himself, on whom the condemnation fell, fondly cherished and regarded as the most important thing of all; wherein he indulges in fabrications and outrageous statements, on a par with his mental capacity and the unsteadiness of his opinions.

The audacious and idle assertions which he makes against the council, a comedy in four parts, are in no way deserving of credit or even sensible.

The author is John of Aegae, 5 an impious person, but his diction has beauty and charm, and is brilliant and perspicuous.

But he is obviously a Eutychian, not a Nestorian, unless the mistake is in Cod. Read the treatise of Theodoret of Cyrrhus Against Heresies, from the time of Simon 1 down to those which sprang up in his own age.

It is dedicated to a certain Sporacius, 2 who was fond of hearing about such matters. It goes down to Nestorius and his heresy, on which he pours forth unmitigated censure, and even farther, to the heresy of Eutyches.

In the last of the five books which the treatise contains, he gives a summary of divine and orthodox doctrine compared with idle heretical talk, showing that it is not to be confounded with the latter, but is pure and irreprehensible.

The style is clear and free from redundancies. Read Appian's 1 Roman History, in three parts and twenty-four books.

The first of these, the founder and oekist of the city, although his rule was rather patriarchal than tyrannical, was nevertheless assassinated, or, according to others, disappeared from view.

The second, in no way inferior as a ruler to his predecessor, or perhaps even his superior, died at the age of The third was struck by lightning.

The fourth succumbed to disease. The fifth was murdered by shepherds. The sixth was also murdered. The seventh was deposed and driven out of the city for his tyranny.

After this, the monarchy was abolished, and its powers transferred to consuls. Such is the contents of the first book, which is entitled The Book of the Kings.

The second book, entitled Italica, gives an account of the history of Italy with the exception of that part which is situated on the Ionian Sea.

The following book, Samnitica, relates the wars of the Romans with the Samnites, 4 a powerful nation and an enemy difficult to conquer whom it took the Romans eighty years to subdue, and the other nations who fought on their side.

The fourth, Celtica, relates the wars of the Romans with the Celts Gauls. The remaining books are similarly named. The fifth contains the History of Sicily and the other Islands, the sixth gives an account of Iberian affairs, the seventh of the Hannibalic wars, the eighth of Libyan affairs dealing with Carthage and Numidia , the ninth of Macedonian affairs, the tenth of Greek and Ionian affairs, the eleventh of Syrian and Parthian affairs, the twelfth of the Mithradatic war.

Up tp this point the relations and wars of the Romans with foreign nations are set forth in this order. The books that follow describe the civil wars and disturbances amongst the Romans themselves.

They are entitled the first and second books of the Civil Wars and so on down to the ninth, which is the twenty-first book of the whole. The twenty-second book is called Hekatontaetia the history of one hundred years , the twenty-third, Dacica, on Dacian affairs, the twenty-fourth, Arabica, on Arabian affairs.

Such are the divisions of the entire work. The account of the civil wars contains first the war between Marius and Sulla, then that between Pompey and Julius Caesar, after their rivalry took the form of violent hostilities, until fortune favoured Caesar and Pompey was defeated and put to flight.

Next, it describes the proceedings of Antony and Octavius Caesar also known as Augustus against the murderers of Julius Caesar, at the time when many distinguished Romans were put to death without a trial.

Lastly, the desperate conflict between Antony and Augustus, accompanied by terrible slaughter, in which victory declared for Augustus. Antony, deserted by his allies, was driven a fugitive to Egypt, where he died by his own hand.

The last book of the Civil Wars describes how Egypt came into the power of the Romans, and how Augustus became the sole ruler of Rome.

The history begins with Aeneas, the son of Anchises, the son of Capys, who lived in the time of the Trojan war.

After the capture of Troy Aeneas fled, and after much wandering landed on the coast of Italy at a place called Laurentum, where his camp is shown, and the coast is called after him Troja.

Faunus, son of Mars, who was at the time ruler of the original Italian inhabitants, gave his daughter Lavinia in marriage to Aeneas and a piece of land stades in circumference, on which Aeneas built a city and called it Lavinium after his wife Lavinia.

Three years later, Faunus died, and Aeneas, who succeeded to the throne by right of kinship, gave the aborigines 5 the name of Latins from his father-in-law Latinus Faunus.

After another three years, Aeneas was killed in battle against the Rutulians of Tyrrhenia, to whose king Lavinia had formerly been betrothed.

He was succeeded by Euryleon, surnamed Ascanius, the son of Aeneas by Creusa the daughter of Priam, who was his wife at Troy. According to others, however, the Ascanius who succeeded him was his son by Lavinia.

Ascanius died four years after he had founded the city of Alba with a body of settlers from Lavinium, and Silvius became king.

His descendants were Capys, Capetus, Tiberinus, and Agrippa, said to be the father of Romulus, who was killed by lightning, leaving a son Aventinus, who had a son named Procas.

All these are said to have been surnamed Silvius. Procas had two children, the elder named Numitor, the younger.

When the elder succeeded to the throne on the death of his father, the younger got possession of it by force and crime, killed his brother's son Egestus, and made his daughter Rhea a priestess, so that she might not have children.

But Numitor's mildness and gentleness saved him from the plot against his life. Silvia broke her vows and became pregnant, 6 and was seized by Amulius for punishment, her two sons being given to some shepherds to be thrown into the river Tiber near at hand.

The infants, Romulus and Romus, 7 were descended from Aeneas on the mother's side; the name of their father was unknown. As already stated, the history begins with a rapid account of Aeneas and his descendants; but from the time of Romulus, the oekist 9 of the city, it gives full details of events to the reign of Augustus, and, here and there, as late as the time of Trajan.

Appian was an Alexandrian by birth, and at first an advocate at Rome, being subsequently raised to the dignity of a procurator 10 under the emperors.

His style is dry and free from redundancies; as an historian, he is trustworthy to the best of his ability, and an excellent authority on military matters; the speeches which he introduces are admirably calculated to encourage soldiers when dispirited, to restrain them when too ardent, to express and faithfully represent the emotions and feelings.

He flourished in the reigns of Trajan and Hadrian. Of the twenty-four books of the Roman History, which Photius had before him, only eleven besides the Preface are completely preserved; the others are entirely lost, or only fragments.

Read Arrian's 1 Parthica History of Parthia in seventeen books. He has also written the best account of the campaigns of Alexander of Macedon.

Another work of his is Bithynica History of Bithynia , relating the affairs of his native country.

He also wrote an Alanica History of the Alani. He considers the Parthians to have been a Scythian race, which had long been under the yoke of Macedonia, and revolted, at the time of the Persian rebellion, 3 for the following reason.

Arsaces and Tiridates were two brothers, descendants of Arsaces, the son of Phriapetes. These two brothers, with five accomplices, slew Pherecles, who had been appointed satrap of Parthia by Antiochus Theos, 4 to avenge an insult offered to one of them; they drove out the Macedonians, set up a government of their own, and became so powerful that they were a match for the Romans in war, and sometimes even were victorious over them.

Arrian further relates that during the reign of Sesostris, king of Egypt, and landysus, king of Scythia, the Parthians removed from their own country, Scythia, to the land which they now inhabit.

The emperor Trajan reduced them to submission but left them free under a treaty, and appointed a king over them. This Arrian, called the "young Xenophon," a philosopher and one of the pupils of Epictetus, 5 flourished during the reigns of Hadrian, Antoninus Pius, and Marcus Antoninus.

Owing to his remarkable learning he was entrusted with various offices of state, and was finally promoted to the consulship. He was also the author of other works: His style is dry, and he is a genuine imitator of Xenophon.

It is said that he was also the author of other works, but they have not come into my hands. Certainly he does not lack rhetorical skill and power.

He was born at Nicomedia in Bithynia, studied philosophy under Epictetus and distinguished himself as a soldier. He was appointed governor of Cappadocia in , and consul in He spent the rest of his life in his native city, where he held the lifelong office of priest of Demeter and Kore.

In addition to the works here mentioned, he was the author of: A Voyage round the Euxine, a treatise on Tactics, the Order of Battle against the Alani defeated by him while governor of Cappadocia , on the Chase, and an account of India, perhaps a continuation of the Anabasis the account of Alexander's campaigns , so named after the Anabasis of his model Xenophon.

The more natural rendering; would seem to be: Read the proceedings of the synod 1 that was unlawfully summoned against St. The presidents were Theophilus, bishop of Alexandria, Acacius of Beroea, Antiochus of Ptolemais, Severian of Gabala, and Cyrinus of Chalcedon, who were bitterly hostile to Chrysostom, and constituted themselves judges, accusers, and witnesses.

There were thirteen sessions: Owing to the pressure of other business, however, the deposition of Heraclides could not be ratified.

His accuser was Macarius, bishop of Magnesia. The open enemy and chief accuser of Chrysostom was his deacon John.

He first charged Chrysostom with having wronged him by ejecting him for having beaten his own servant Eulalius; the second charge was that a certain monk named John had been flogged by order of Chrysostom, dragged along, and put in chains like those possessed; the third, that he had sold much valuable Church property; the fourth, that he had sold the marble which Nectarius had set aside for decorating the church of St.

Anastasia; the fifth, that he had reviled the clergy as dishonourable, corrupt, useless in themselves, 2 and worthless; the sixth, that he had called St.

Such were the charges against this holy man. He was four times summoned, but refused to appear. He declared that, if the synod would remove his open enemies from the list of judges, he was ready to appear and defend himself against any charges brought against him; if they refused to do so, no matter how many times they summoned him, it would be of no avail.

The first and second counts were then investigated, after which the synod proceeded to deal with the case of the bishops Heraclides and Palladius of Helenopolis.

The monk John, mentioned by the deacon John in the second charge against Chrysostom, presented a memorial accusing Heraclides of being a follower of Origen, and of having been arrested at Caesarea in Palestine for the theft of the clothes of Aquilinus the deacon.

Notwithstanding this, he declared, Chrysostom had consecrated him bishop of Epliesus. He further accused Chrysostom himself, whom he blamed for all that he had suffered at the hands of Serapion and Chrysostom owing to the Origenists.

After this the ninth and twenty-seventh charges were investigated. Then bishop Isaac again charged Heraclides with being a follower of Origen, with whom the most holy Epiphanius would hold no communion either at prayers or meals.

He also presented a memorial containing the following charges against Chrysostom: Of these charges the first, having been already discussed, did not seem to require further examination, but the second and seventh, and then the third of the charges brought by deacon John, were investigated.

In this last the archpresbyter Arsacius, the successor of Chrysostom, and the presbyters Atticus and Elpidius somehow or other came forward as witnesses against that holy man.

They and the presbyter Acacius also gave witness against him on the fourth charge. After these had been investigated, the above-mentioned presbyters, with Eudaemon and Onesimus, demanded that the synod should hasten its decision.

Accordingly, Paul, bishop of Heraclea, called upon all to give their vote. The members present, forty-five in all, then recorded their opinion, beginning with bishop Gymnasius and ending with Theophilus of Alexandria.

It was unanimously decided that Chrysostom should be deprived of his episcopate. A letter on his deposition was sent on the part of the synod to the clergy of Constantinople, and a report was made to the emperors.

Gerontius, Faustinus, and Eugnomonius also presented three petitions, complaining that they had been unjustly deprived of their episcopates by Chrysostom.

The emperors in reply sent an imperial rescript to the synod. These were the proceedings of the twelfth session; the thirteenth, as has been stated, was occupied with the case of Heraclides, bishop of Ephesus.

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